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Selected Bibliography:
Anthony Ashley Cooper,
third Earl of Shaftesbury (1671-1713)

By Laurent Jaffro

 


Bibliography

Laurent Jaffro, "Bibliographie des études relatives à Anthony Ashley Cooper, troisième Comte de Shaftesbury (1671-1713)". An extensive but unannotated secondary bibliography (http://www-philo.univ-paris1.fr/Jaffro/Shaftesbury.htm) (NO LONGER UPDATED).

Editions
  • Collected Works

    • Standard Edition: Shaftesbury, Complete Works, Selected Letters and Posthumous Writings, in English with German Translation, ed. W. Benda, G. Hemmerich, W. Lottes, U. Schöldbauer, E. Wolff, et alii (Stuttgart: Fromman-Holzboog, 1981-) (in progress). Five series: I, "Æsthetics"; II, "Moral and Political Philosophy"; III, "Letters"; IV, "Commentaries"; "Documents and indexes". About 21 volumes are planned. Much has been said on this project that rearranges Shaftesbury's works and does not follow the original order of Characteristics. See Richard B. Wolf's review in Modern Philology, 81 (1983-1984), 311-316.
      Available volumes:
      • I, "Æsthetics":
        • Vol. I, 1 (1981): Soliloquy: Or, Advice to an Author; A Letter Concerning Enthusiasm; The Adept Ladys; Epigrams. English and German.
        • Vol. I, 2 (1989): Miscellaneous Reflections. English and German.
        • Vol. I, 3 (1992): Sensus Communis: An Essay on the Freedom of Wit and Humour (English and German); Instructions to the Printer and to the Engraver (English and German); Rough Draft of 2nd Instructions; Additions, Emendations, and Annotations to the 1st Edition of the Characteristicks; Additions and Supplements to The Sociable Enthusiast (1704), preparatory to the 1st edition of The Moralists (1709).
        • Vol. I, 4 (1993): Printed Notes to the Characteristicks (English and German); Shaftesbury´s Index to the Characteristicks; Latin Authors Quoted in the Characteristicks (Latin and German).
        • Vol. I, 5 (2001): Second Characters / Schriften zur Kunst.
      • II, "Moral and Political Philosophy":
        • Vol. II, 1 (1987): The Moralists; The Sociable Enthusiast. English.
        • Vol. II, 2 (1984): An Inquiry Concerning Virtue, or Merit (1711); An Inquiry Concerning Virtue (1699). English.
        • Vol. II, 3 (1998): Des Maizeaux's French translation of parts of An Inquiry Concerning Virtue. English and German.
    • P. Ayres, ed., Characteristicks of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times (Oxford: Oxford UP, 1999), 2 vols. Based on the text of the first edition of 1711, as revised by Shaftesbury himself in preparation for the posthumous 2d edition of 1714 (from Shaftesbury's own copy in the British Library, C.28.g.16). This edition is the closest to Shaftesbury's editorial principles. Includes the engraved plates of the 2d edition.
    • L. E. Klein, ed., Characteristics of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1999). This edition is based on the text of the second edition of 1714 (BL 231.g.1), but does not include "The Notion of the Historical Draught or Tablature of the Judgment of Hercules" nor the emblematic engravings. Spelling and punctuation have been modernized; Greek and Latin quotations have been translated. Reading is facilitated.
    • Other Important Editions:
      • Characteristicks of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times, 1st ed, 3 vol. Vol. I: A Letter Concerning Enthusiasm ; Sensus Communis, or an Essay on the Freedom of Wit and Humour ; Soliloquy, or Advice to an Author. Vol. II: An Inquiry Concerning Virtue, or Merit ; The Moralists: a Philosophical Rhapsody. Vol. III: Miscellaneous Reflections on the Preceding Treatises, and other Critical Subjects (London: John Darby, Jr., 1711; repr. Hildescheim: Georg Olms, 1978).
      • 2nd ed. correct., 3 vol. (London: John Darby, Jr., 1714; 1715 according to the colophon). Adds engraved plates by Simon Gribelin. Adds A Notion of the Historical Draught or Tablature of the Judgment of Hercules. Some copies add A Letter Concerning Design.
      • 5th ed., 3 vol. (Londres, 1732). Adds A Letter Concerning Design.
        This text has been reedited with the original illustrations and Shaftesbury's index by D. Den Uyl: Characteristics, 3 vol., Indianapolis, Liberty Fund, 2001. See below "electronic resources".
      • Characteristicks..., 4 vol. (Glasgow, 1758). The new 4th volume not only includes the Judgment of Hercules, A Letter Concerning Design, but adds the Letters to a Student at the University, the Letters from the Right Honourable the Late Earl of Shaftesbury to Robert Molesworth, some material from Birch's account (below), and the preface to Whichcote's Select Sermons.
      • "A Character of Augustus, Maecenas and Horace; with some Reflections on the Works of Horace, by the Earl of Shaftesbury", in Three Dissertations, ed. G. Turnbull, London, 1740. A selection from Characteristics.
      • The only 1st volume of Characteristicks was edited by W. M. Hatch (London: Longmans, Green and Co, 1870). This edition includes Hatch's interesting appendices.

  • Individual Works

    • "Preface" to Select Sermons of Dr. Whichcot [sic] (London, 1698).
    • An Inquiry Concerning Virtue, in two Discourses (London, 1699). According to the fourth Earl's Life Sketch (below), this edition was due to John Toland's initiative. The 1711 corrected version in Characteristicks has been edited with material from the 1699 text by D. Walford: An Inquiry Concerning Virtue or Merit (Manchester, Manchester UP, 1977).
    • Paradoxes of State, Relating to the Present Juncture of Affairs in England and the Rest of Europe (London, 1702).
    • The Sociable Enthusiast (1704). Privately printed first version of The Moralists.
    • A Letter Concerning Enthusiasm (London, 1708). Recent edition by R. B. Wolf: An Old-Spelling, Critical Edition of Shaftesbury's Letter Concerning Enthusiasm and Sensus Communis: An Essay on the Freedom of Wit and Humour (London: Garland Pub., 1988).
    • The Moralists, a Philosophical Rhapsody (London, 1709).
    • Sensus Communis: An Essay on the Freedom of Wit and Humour (London, 1709). Recent edition by R. B. Wolf (above).
    • Soliloquy: or, Advice to an Author (London, 1710).
    • A Notion of the Historical Draught or Tablature of Hercules, According to Prodicus (London, 1713).
    • Several Letters written by a Noble Lord to a Young Man at the University (London, 1716).
    • Letters from the Right Honourable the Late Earl of Shaftesbury to Robert Molesworth, ed. John Toland, (London, 1721).
    • A Letter Concerning the Art or Science of Design, in The Present State of the Republick of Letters, 1 (1728).
    • "Some reflections on the characters of Augustus, Maecenas, and Horace, and on the works of Horace, by the Earl of Shaftsbury", in Abbé Vertot, ed. G. Turnbull, Three dissertations: one on the characters of Augustus, Horace and Agrippa... (London: 1740): 20-67. This material relating especially to Horace comes from Characteristics and from Shaftesbury's letters to Pierre Coste.
    • Letters of the Earl of Shaftesbury, Author of the Characteristicks, collected into one volume (Glasgow, 1746).
Selected Manuscripts
  • The main collection is in the Shaftesbury Papers, Public Record Office, London ("A collection of documents, also entry-books of letters, written by, and correspondence of, the third Earl of Shaftesbury"). The Shaftesbury Papers were gifted to the PRO by the 7th Earl of Shaftesbury in 1871. Other elements of Shaftesbury's correspondence are included in other collections and some of them have been published by T. Forster and R. A. Barrel (below).
    Short selection of manuscripts and documents among the Shaftesbury Papers:
    • PRO 30/24/20
      • PRO 30/24/20/143: Letters to Michael Ainsworth (1707-1710).
    • PRO 30/24/21
      • PRO 30/24/21/226: Sketch of the Life of the third Earl of Shaftesbury by his son the fourth Earl.
      • PRO 30/24/21/227: De la vertu et créance d'une divinité. Des Maizeaux's translation of parts of Inquiry Concerning Virtue.
    • PRO 30/24/22: Letters (1703-1711).
    • PRO 30/24/23
      • PRO 30/24/23/10-12: Catalogues of Shaftesbury's libraries in Chelsea and Saint-Giles.
      • PRO 30/24/23/8-9: Letters (1711-1713).
    • PRO 30/24/24
      • PRO 30/24/24/16-17: Two manuscript volumes containing Sermons by Benjamin Whichcote. This material was originally the property of the unitarian Thomas Firmin.
    • PRO 30/24/26
      • PRO 30/24/26/1: Virtuoso copy-book (1712-1713), containing A Letter Concerning the Art or Science of Design ; Judgment of Hercules ; Instructions for Mr Darby, etc.
      • PRO 30/24/26/4-6: Annotated copy of The Sociable Enthusiast, preparatory to The Moralists, and supplements to The Sociable Enthusiast.
      • PRO 30/24/26/7: Pathologia sive Explicatio Affectum Humanorum (1706).
      • PRO 30/24/26/8: Jugement de Monsieur Leibnitz sur les différents ouvrages qui composent les Characteristicks. Later published in Des Maizeaux, ed., Recueil de diverses pièces sur la philosophie... (Amsterdam, 1720).
      • PRO 30/24/26/9: English translation of the preceding.
    • PRO 30/24/27
      • PRO 30/24/27/10: Askêmata, two notebooks (1698-1712).
      • PRO 30/24/27/14: Design of a Socratick History (1703-1707).
      • PRO 30/24/27/15: Notebook on Art, Painting, Ancient and Modern Masters... (Naples, 1712). Project of Second Characters, or the Language of Forms, including the draft of Plasticks.
      • PRO 30/24/27/16: "Notes not set down in the margin of my little Colon-edition". Notes on Epictetus; the "Colon-edition" is Hieronymus Wolf's Epictetus et Cebes, 1595.
      • PRO 30/24/27/27: The Picture of Cebes, Disciple of Socrates. Translation of Tabula Cebetis.
    • PRO 30/24/45/80: Miscellaneous letters.
    • PRO 30/24/46A/81: The Adept Ladys or the Angelick Sect... (1701-1702).
    • PRO 30/24/47: Instructions (1712) for the 2nd edition of Characteristicks.
  • Manuscripts from the PRO are to be published and some of them are already edited in the Standard Edition (above). Some of these manuscripts have been published or translated in other editions (below).
  • Another lesser-known though important collection is in the Harris Papers, Hampshire Record Office, Winchester (essentially "Papers of Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury (1671-1713)"). The philosopher and grammarian James Harris (1709-1780) was Shaftesbury's nephew and had direct access to the papers of his uncle. According to the Hampshire Record Office catalogue, this collection includes: Letters (in French) to the 3rd Earl from Pierre Bayle; letters (in French) from Coste; letters (in French) from Jean Le Clerc ; letters from Benjamin Furly; letters to the 3rd Earl from various correspondents; letter-book with copies of letters from the 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury to various correspondents; other letters and documents; copies of letters from 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury to Mr Coste, prepared for publication; Chronology of Horace, according to the idea of a letter to Mr Coste, 15 Nov 1706; small notebooks of notes on The Satires and The Epistles; papers and notes collected for a Life of the 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury by James Harris, etc.
Published Manuscripts
  • See Standard Edition above.
  • Some material from unpublished papers was used by Thomas Birch in General Dictionary, vol. IX (1739): 179-186, and had been provided by Shaftesbury's nephew, Jame Harris.
  • Harris supplied John Upton with Shaftesbury's annotations on Epictetus. See J. Upton, ed., Epicteti quae supersunt dissertationes ab Arriano collectae nec non Enchiridion et fragmenta Graece et Latine ... cum integris Jacobi Schegkii et Hieronymi Wolfii selectisque aliorum doctorum annotationibus, 2 vol. (London: Thomae Woodward, 1741).
  • The first scholar who drew some informations from the Shaftesbury Papers was Thomas Fowler in his Shaftesbury and Hutcheson (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington, 1882).
  • Benjamin Rand edited the Askêmata (PRO 30/24/27/10) in The Life, Unpublished Letters, and Philosophical Regimen of Anthony, Earl of Shaftesbury (London: Swan Sonnenschein, 1900). This version is widely cited but unreliable and incomplete. L. Jaffro has translated into French the complete manuscript of Askêmata (below).
  • B. Rand also edited the texts of the projected Second Characters (PRO 30/24/27/15) in Second Characters, or the Language of Forms, by the Right Honourable Anthony, Earl of Shaftesbury (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1914). widely cited, but the edition of the main piece, Plasticks, is very defective.
  • See also F. H. Heinemann, "The philosopher of enthusiasm. With material hitherto unpublished", Revue Internationale de Philosophie, 6 (1952): 294-322.
  • Many documents from the Shaftesbury Papers, relating to The Moralists, including drafts and letters, have been carefully edited by H. Meyer Limae Labor: Untersuchungen zur Textgenese und Druckgeschichte von Shaftesburys "The Moralists" (Francfort: Peter Lang, 1978).
  • Some unpublished letters have been edited by T. Forster in his Original Letters of John Locke, Algernon Sidney and Lord Shaftesbury (London, 1830; 2nd ed., London, 1847), by B. Rand (above), and by R. A. Barrel in his Shaftesbury and 'le Refuge français'. Correspondence (Lewiston: E. Mellen Press, 1989).
Selected Translations
  • French

    • Pierre Coste, Essai sur l'usage de la raillerie, (La Haye: 1710). Translation of Sensus Communis. It has long been ascribed to J. Van Effen, but there is new evidence that Pierre Coste was the translator. See J. Dybikowski, "Letters from Solitude : Pierre Coste’s Correspondence with the Third Earl of Shaftesbury", in Réseaux de correspondance à l'âge classique (XVIe-XVIIIe siècle), Pierre-Yves Beaurepaire, Jens Häseler, Antony McKenna (ed.), Saint-Etienne, Presses Universitaires de Saint-Etienne, 2006, p.109-133.
    • D. Diderot, Principes de la Philosophie Morale ou Essai de M. S*** sur le mérite et la vertu. Avec Réflexions (Paris, 1745); ed. P. Casini and J. F. Spink in Œuvres Complètes de Denis Diderot, I, "Le Modèle Anglais" (Paris: Hermann, 1975). Translation of Inquiry Concerning Virtue, or Merit.
    • J.-B. Robinet, Œuvres de Mylord Comte de Shaftsbury... [sic], 3 vol. (Genève: 1769). Translation of Characteristicks.
    • A. Leroy, ed., Mylord Shaftesbury. A Letter Concerning Enthusiasm (Paris: PUF, 1930). English text and French translation.
    • L. Jaffro, ed., Exercices (Paris: Aubier, 1993). Annotated translation of Askêmata, PRO 30/24/27/10.
    • D. Lories, ed., Soliloque ou conseil à un auteur (Paris: L'Herne, 1994). Translation of Soliloquy.

  • Italian

    • P. Casini, ed., I Moralisti: Rapsodia filosofica (Bari: Laterza, 1971). Translation of The Moralists.
    • E. Garin, ed., Lettera sull'entusiasmo (Milano: Rizzoli, 1984). Translation of Letter Concerning Enthusiasm.

  • German

    • J. J. Spalding, Die Sittenlehrer, oder Erzählung philosophischer Gespräche, welche die Natur und die Tugend betreffen (Berlin, 1745). Translation of The Moralists.
    • C. Seidel and G. E. Scheidhauer , Soliloquium von den wahren Eigenschaften eines Schriftstellers (Magdebourg and Leipzig, 1746). Translation of Soliloquy.
    • [J. J. Spalding?], Untersuchung über die Tugend (Berlin, 1747). Translation of Inquiry Concerning Virtue.
    • H. W. von Logau und Altendorf, Entwurf der historischen Zeichnung, oder Schilderei, von dem Urteile des Herkules (Leipzig, 1748). Translation of Judgment of Hercules.
    • Translation of Sensus Communis in F. C. Oetinger, Die Wahreit des Sensus Communis oder des allgemeinen Sinnes (Tübingen, 1753).
    • C. A. Wichmann, Characteristicks, oder Schilderungen von Menschen, Sitten, Meynungen und Zeiten (Leipzig, 1768). Translation of Characteristicks, with Leibniz's remarks.
    • J. G. Herder, Naturhymnus von Shaftesbury [ sic], 1800, in Herder's Sämmtliche Werke, ed. B. Suphan, XXVII (Berlin: 1877-1913). Translation of parts of The Moralists.
    • Translation into German of Shaftesbury's whole work. See above, Standard Edition.

  • Spanish

    • D. A. Sampietro, ed., Del soliloquio o consejos al escritor (Buenos Aires: Instituto de Filosofía, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, 1972). Translation of Soliloquy.
    • A. Andreu, éd., Sensus communis : Ensayo sobre la libertad de ingenio y humor (Valencia: Pre-Textos, 1995).
    • J. V. Arregui and Pablo Arnau, ed., Los Moralistas (Barcelona: Ediciones Internacionales Universitarias, 1997). Translation of The Moralists.
    • A. Andreu, ed., Carta sobre el entusiasmo (Barcelona: Crítica, 1997). Translation of Letter Concerning Enthusiasm.
    • A. Andreu, ed., Investigación sobre la virtud o el mérito (Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1998). Translation of Inquiry Concerning Virtue.

  • Hungarian (thanks to Endre Szécsényi)

    • Miklós Szenczi, ed., Értekezés az erényről és az érdemről, tr. Judit Aniot (Budapest: Magyar Helikon, 1969, [rev.] 2004; Budapest: Kossuth, 1994). Translation of Inquiry.
    • György Márkus, ed., A moralisták: filozófiai rapszódia, tr. Ferenc Fehér, in Brit moralisták a XVIII. században [British Moralists in the 18th century] (Budapest: Gondolat, 1977). Translation of The Moralists.
    • Endre Szécsényi, ed., Sensus communis: esszé a szellem és a jó kedély szabadságáról, tr. András Harkányi (Budapest: Atlantisz, 2007, forthcoming). Translation of Sensus Communis.

Biographies
    • R. Voitle, The Third Earl of Shaftesbury, 1671-1713 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1984). The only modern biography. Draws much material from the Shaftesbury Papers.
    • The first biography was written by the fourth Earl of Shaftesbury: Sketch of the Life of the third Earl of Shaftesbury, in B. Rand, ed., The Life, Unpublished Letters, and Philosophical Regimen of Anthony, Earl of Shaftesbury (London: Swan Sonnenschein, 1900): xvii-xxxi. The source is the manuscript PRO 30/24/21/226 (above).
    • The same source was used by Thomas Birch in his General Dictionary, vol. IX (1739): 179-186.
Criticism
  • Collection

    • F. Brugère and M. Malherbe, ed., Shaftesbury. Philosophie et politesse (Paris: Champion, 2000). It contains several papers from an international conference held at the University of Nantes (France), September 1996. With contributions by: F. Badelon, J.-P. Larthomas, D. Lories, L. Jaffro, L. E. Klein, F. Brugère, M. Malherbe, B. Saint-Girons, J.-M. Vienne, J. V. Arregui, G. Stenger, E. Martin-Haag.

  • Monographs and Articles

    • Works on Shaftesbury and the Enlightenment
      • S. Grean, Shaftesbury's Philosophy of Religion and Ethics: a Study in Enthusiasm (Athens, Ohio: UP, 1967). Extensive treatment, but does not take the Shaftesbury Papers into consideration.
      • L. E. Klein, Shaftesbury and the Culture of Politeness: Moral Discourse and Cultural Politics in Early 18th-Century England (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1994). Puts Shaftesbury in his cultural-political context.
      • L. Jaffro, Ethique de la communication et art d'écrire. Shaftesbury et les Lumières anglaises (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1998).
      • I. Rivers, Reason, Grace, and Sentiment. A Study of the Language of Religion and Ethics in England, 1660-1780, vol. 2, Shaftesbury to Hume (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000). Pays close attention to Shaftesbury's impact on the Scottish Enlightenment.
      • F. Crispini, L'etica dei moderni. Shaftesbury e le ragioni della virtu (Roma: Donzelli, 2000).

    • Works on Shaftesbury and the Cambridge Platonists

      • E. Cassirer, "Shaftesbury und die Renaissance des Platonismus in England", Vorträge der Bibliothek Warburg, IX, 24 (1930-1931): 136-155. Starting point for modern studies.
      • E. Cassirer, The Platonic Renaissance in England, trans. J. Pettegrove, (London: Nelson, 1953). Long the standard study of Shaftesbury's neoplatonism.
      • M. Micheletti, "Animal capax religionis". Da Benjamin Whichcote a Shaftesbury (Perugia: Benucci, 1984).
      • M. B. Gill, "The Religious Rationalism of Benjamin Whichcote", Journal of the History of Philosophy, 37, 2 (1999): 271-300.
      • D. Grossklaus, Natürliche Religion und aufgeklärte Gesellschaft: Shaftesburys Verhältnis zu den Cambridge Platonists (Heidelberg: Winter Verlag, 2000). The major essay since Cassirer's.

    • Literary Theory

      • R. L. Brett, The Third Earl of Shaftesbury: a Study in Eighteenth-Century Literary Theory (London: Hutchinson's University Library, 1951). Useful but dated.
      • E. Wolff, Shaftesbury und seine Bedeutung für die englische Literatur des 18 Jahrhunderts. Der Moralist und die literarische Form (Tübingen: Nimeyer, 1960).
      • R. Marsh, Four Dialectical Theories of Poetry: an Aspect of English Neoclassical Criticism (Chicago: Chicago UP, 1965). A fine discussion of Soliloquy.
      • M. Prince, Philosophical Dialogue in the British Enlightenment. Theology, Æsthetics and the Novel (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996). Close reading of Shaftesbury's poetics.

    • Æsthetic

      • J. E. Sweetman, "Shaftesbury's Last Commission", Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 19 (1956): 110-116. On Shaftesbury's commission to Paolo de Matteis of a portrait of the philosopher as a dying man.
      • J. Stolniz , "On the Significance of Lord Shaftesbury in Modern Æsthetic Theory”, Philosophical Quarterly, 11 (1961): 97-113.
      • W. Lottes, "The Judgment of Hercules. Shaftesbury und die ut pictura poesis Tradition", Anglia, 107 (1989): 330-343.
      • L. Pestilli, "Lord Shaftesbury e Paolo de Matteis: Ercole al bivio tra teoria e pratica", Storia dell'arte, 68 (1990): 95-121. On the Judgment of Hercules.
      • D. Leatherbarrow, "Plastic Character, or, How to Twist Morality with Plastics", Res, 21 (1992): 124-141.
      • P. Mortensen, " Shaftesbury and the Morality of Art Appreciation", Journal of the History of Ideas, 55, 4 (1994): 631-650.
      • J. V.Arregui, "La teologia de la belleza en Shaftesbury y Hutcheson", Thémata, 13 (1995): 11-35.
      • R. Paulson, The Beautiful, Novel, and Strange: Æsthetics and Heterodoxy (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996).
      • F. Brugère, Théorie de l'art et philosophie de la sociabilité selon Shaftesbury (Paris: Champion, 1999).
      • B. Schmidt-Haberkamp, Die Kunst der Kritik: zum Zusammenhang von Ethik und Ästhetik bei Shaftesbury (Münich: Fink, 2000). Extensive treatment.
      • Wessely A., “The Knowledge of an Early Eighteenth-Century Connoisseur: Shaftesbury and the Fine Arts”, Acta Historia Artium Hung., 41 (1999-2000), 279-309. Very fine study of Shaftesbury's connoisseurship, with new views on the illustrations of Characteristics.
      • D. Townsend, Hume's Æsthetic Sentiments (London: Routledge, 2001). A good deal on Shaftesbury.
      • R. Glauser, “Aesthetic Experience in Shaftesbury”, The Aristotelian Society, sup. vol. LXXVI (2002): 25-54. A major study, with new views on "disinterestedness".
      • Woldt I., Architektonik der Formen in Shaftesburys 'Second Characters' (München: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 2004). The first monography on this set of manuscripts.

    • Moral and Political Philosophy

      • E. L. Tuveson, "The Origin of the Moral Sense", Huntington Library Quarterly, 11 (1947-1948): 241-259. The first essay on the connection between Shaftesbury and Thomas Burnet.
      • R. Voitle, "Shaftesbury's Moral Sense", Studies in Philology, 52 (1955): 17-38.
      • C. Taylor, Sources of the Self. The Making of Modern Identity (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1989). Good overview. Overrates Shaftesbury's sentimentalism.
      • S. Darwall, The British Moralists and the Internal 'Ought' (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1995). A major account of Shaftesbury's place in the history of moral philosophy.
      • L. Jaffro, "La constitution de la doctrine du sens moral: Thomas Burnet, Shaftesbury, Hutcheson", in Le Sens moral. Une histoire de la philosophie morale de Locke à Kant, ed. L. Jaffro (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2000), 11-46.

    • Stoicism

      • E. A. Tiffany, "Shaftesbury as Stoic", Publications of the Modern Language Association, 38 (1923): 642-684. A starting point.
      • F. Uehlein, Kosmos und Subjektivität. Lord Shaftesburys Philosophical Regimen (Freiburg: K. Alber, 1976). This learned discussion of Askêmata unfortunately draws on B. Rand's edition.
      • L. Jaffro, "Les Exercices de Shaftesbury: un stoïcisme crépusculaire", in Le Retour des philosophies à l'âge classique, vol. 1, Le Stoïcisme, ed. P.-F. Moreau (Paris: Albin Michel, 1999), 340-354.
      • L. Jaffro, "La question du sens moral et le lexique stoïcien", Shaftesbury. Philosophie et politesse, ed. F. Brugère and M. Malherbe (Paris: Champion, 2000), 61-78.

    • Enthusiasm and Religion

      • A. O. Aldridge, "Shaftesbury and the Test of Truth", Publications of the Modern Language Association, 60 (1945): 129-156.
      • A. O. Aldridge, "Shaftesbury and the Deist Manifesto", Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 41 (1951): 297-385. A major study.
      • H. J. Schings, Melancholie und Aufklärung (Stuttgart: Metzler, 1977).
      • A. O. Aldridge, "Shaftesbury's Rosicrucian Ladies", Anglia, 103 (1985): 297-319. Bold interpretation of The Adept Ladys.
      • I. Rivers, "Shaftesburian Enthusiasm and the Evangelical Revival", in Revival and Religion since 1700: Essays for John Walsh, ed. J. Garnett and C. Matthew (London: Hambledon Press, 1993).
      • M. Heyd, "Be Sober and Reasonable". The Critique of Enthusiasm in the Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries (Leiden: Brill, 1995). Extensive treatment.
      • R. Glauser, “Shaftesbury : enthousiasme et expérience religieuse”, Revue de Théologie et de Philosophie, 134 (2002): 217-234.

    • Shaftesbury and the French Prophets

      • G. Ascoli, "L'affaire des prophètes français à Londres", Revue du Dix-huitième siècle, 1 et 2 (1916).
      • H. Schwartz, Knaves, Fools and Mad Men, and that Subtile Effluvium (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1978).
      • H. Schwartz, The French Prophets. A Study of a Millenarian Group in Eighteenth-Century England (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980). The best study of the French Prophets affair, which also does much to interpret Shaftesbury's reaction.

    • Reception and Connections in British Thought

      • W. E. Alderman, "Bibliographical Evidence of the Vogue of Shaftesbury in the Eighteenth-Century", Transactions of the Wisconsin Adademy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters, 21 (1926): 57-70.
      • B. Frey, Shaftesbury und Henry Fielding. Shaftesburys Ethik und Humorgedanke in Henry Fieldings komischen Epos (Berne: Arnaud, 1952).
      • I. Kramnick, Bolingbroke and his Circle (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1968).
      • I. Primer, "Mandeville and Shaftesbury: somes facts and problems", in Mandeville Studies: New Explorations in the Art and Thought of Dr. Bernard Mandeville, (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1975), 126-141.
      • L. E. Klein, "Berkeley, Shaftesbury, and the Meaning of Politeness", Studies in Eighteenth-Century Culture, 16, (1986): 57-68.
      • C. Chapin C., "British references to Shaftesbury, 1700-1800. Additions, with commentary, to A. O. Aldridge's list", Philosophy Research Archives, 13 (1987-1988): 315-329. Aldridge's list is included in his "Shaftesbury and the Deist Manifesto" (above).

    • Reception and Connections abroad

      • Ch. Elson, Wieland and Shaftesbury (New York: New York UP, 1913; repr. New York: AMS Press, 1966).
      • B. Croce, Shaftesbury in Italy (Cambridge: Bowes and Bowes, 1924).
      • W. J. B. Pienarr, English Influences in Dutch Literature, and Justus Van Effen as Intermediary (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1929).
      • L. Stettner, Das Philosophische System Shaftesburys und Wielands Agathon (Halle, 1929; repr., Tübingen: Nimeyer, 1975).
      • N. L. Torrey, Voltaire and the English Deists (New Haven: Yale UP, 1930).
      • E. Casati, "Hérauts et commentateurs de Shaftesbury en France", Revue de Littérature Comparée, 14 (1934): 615-645.
      • E. Cassirer, "Schiller und Shaftesbury", Publications of the English Goethe Society, n. s., 11 (1935): 37-59.
      • L. P. Courtines, Bayle's Relation with England and the English (New York: Columbia UP, 1938).
      • D. B. Schlegel, Shaftesbury and the French Deists (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1956).
      • P. Casini, "Diderot e Shaftesbury", Giornale Critico della Filosofia Italiana, 38 (1960): 253-273.
      • G. B. Walters, The Significance of Diderot's "Essay sur le mérite et la vertu" (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1971).
      • L. Simonutti, "Shaftesbury e la Bibliothèque choisie", Giornale Critico della Filosofia Italiana, 7, 2 (1987): 235-281.
      • S. O'Connell, "Lord Shaftesbury in Naples, 1711-1713", Volume of the Walpole Society, 54 (1988 and 1991): 149-219.
      • L. Jaffro, "Vauvenargues et Shaftesbury: le lieu stoïcien de la prolepse", in Vauvenargues. Philosophie de la force active, ed. L. Bove (Paris: Champion, 2000), 133-150.
      • J. Dybikowski, "Letters from Solitude : Pierre Coste’s Correspondence with the Third Earl of Shaftesbury", in Réseaux de correspondance à l'âge classique (XVIe-XVIIIe siècle), Pierre-Yves Beaurepaire, Jens Häseler, Antony McKenna (ed.), Saint-Etienne, Presses Universitaires de Saint-Etienne, 2006, p.109-133.

    • Shaftesbury and Kant

      • D. A. White, "The Metaphysics of Disinterestedness: Shaftesbury and Kant", Journal of Æsthetics and Art Criticism, 32 (1973-1974): 239-248.
      • J. A. Bernstein, Shaftesbury, Rousseau and Kant. An Introduction to the Conflict between Æsthetic and Moral Values in Modern Thought (Rutherford: Fairlegh Dickinson UP, 1980).
      • J.-P. Larthomas, De Shaftesbury à Kant (Paris: Didier Erudition, 1985). Major study of Shaftesbury's reception in German thought.
      • D. Townsend, "From Shaftesbury to Kant: the Development of the Concept of Æsthetic Experience”, Journal of the History of Ideas, 48 (1987): 287-305.
      • D. Lories, "Du désintéressement et du sens commun. Réflexions sur Shaftesbury et Kant", Etudes Phénoménologiques, 9-10 (1989): 189-217.
      • E. E. Kleist, Judging Appearances. A Phenomenological Study of the Kantian Sensus Communis (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2000).

    • Philological and Editorial Studies

      • A. O. Aldridge, "Two Versions of Shaftesbury's Inquiry Concerning virtue", The Huntington Library Quarterly, 13 (1949-1950): 207-214.
      • S. F. Whitaker, "The First Edition of Shaftesbury's Moralists", The Library, 7 (1952): 235-241.
      • H. Meyer Limae Labor: Untersuchungen zur Textgenese und Druckgeschichte von Shaftesburys "The Moralists" (Francfort: Peter Lang, 1978). Close study of the editorial process of The Moralists.
      • R. B. Wolf, "The Publication of Shaftesbury's Letter Concerning Enthusiasm", Studies in Bibliography, 32 (1979): 236-241.
      • H. Meyer, "Ein Philosoph gestaltet seine Bücher. Shaftesbury und die Drucklegung des Characteristicks (1711/14)", Imprimatur, n. s., 11 (1984): 255-267.
      • R. B. Wolf, "The First Two Editions of Shaftesbury's Characteristics: corrigenda and addenda to Meyer's Limae Labor", Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America, 78 (1984): 349-359.
      • P. Zanardi, "Shaftesbury e Des Maizeaux. La storia di una traduzione mancata", I castelli di Yale. Quaderni di filosofia, 3 (1998): 93-98.
      • L. Jaffro, "Les manuscrits de Shaftesbury: typologie et théorie", in Lire, copier, écrire: les bibliothèques manuscrites et leurs usages au XVIIIe siècle, ed. E. Décultot (Paris: CNRS éditions, 2003): 161-178.
      • L. Jaffro, "Le Socrate de Shaftesbury. Comment raconter aux Modernes l'histoire de Socrate ?", Socrate in occidente, ed. E. Lojacono (Firenze: Le Monnier Università, 2004), 66-90. A study of the manuscript of the Design of a Socratick History.

    • Miscellaneous

      • F. Paknadel, "Shaftesbury's Illustrations of Characteristics", Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 37 (1974): 290-312. Widely cited and valuable essay on the engravings of the 2nd and subsequent editions of Characteristics.
      • H. Meyer, "Ex Libris Shaftesburys : die Bibliothek eines Europäischen Auflklärers”, Wölfenbütteler Forschungen, 2 (1977): 75-90.
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